Bhutan has an area covering around 38,394sq.km, stretching 300km from East to West with North and South axis is around 140km. Topographically ascending from South to North the country’s land has been linked to a staircase, climbing from the foothills which lies at 985ft/300m to the Himalayan peak in the Northern border of Tibet that are at highest as 24735ft/7541m. Beginning from subtropical foothill through inner Himalaya and to the great Himalaya, Bhutan’s mountainous geography and rugged topography is more than 72% under forest cover. The importance of environment under national policy and law is to preserve 60% of the country under forest cover. More than 26% of the land is under protected areas with 09 protected areas, which are into strict nature reserves, national parks and wildlife sanctuaries representing typical biodiversity at different levels of species, genetic, landscape and eco-system.
Today the country pride itself in its biological diversity and rich flora and fauna. Within its biodiversity realm, more than 7000 vascular plants, 360 orchid species, more than 46 species of rhododendron and about 500 species of medicinal plants were found. Bhutan is also home for many wild animals like – snow Leopard, blue Sheep, red Panda, tiger, takin, marmot and must dear which are found in the high altitude along with Tiger, Leopard, Goral, grey languor, Himalayan black Bear, Red Panda, Samber, Wild Pig and barking Deer which are found in the temperate zone. The subtropical forest or the plain in the south is known For Tiger, Clouded Leopard, Elephant, One Horned Rhino, Water Buffalo, Golden Languor, Gaur, Swamp Deer and Hog Deer.
The rich forest of Bhutan also provides diverse home for bird species. There are more than 800 – 900 bird species has been recorded. About 106 species known birds are winter migrant with 16 species vulnerable birds. Bhutan is also home to many bird species that are in danger of extinction, including Imperial Heron, which is the fifth rarest birds in the world and the rare Black-necked Crane, which breeds in Tibet and then migrates over Himalayas to Bhutan during the winter months of mid October to early March.